Coconut oil

Coconut oil

CASRN: 8001-31-8

INCI: Cocos Nucifera

Raw material: Coconut fruit

Coconut oil is naturally derived and made by pressing fresh or dried coconut meat. 

Use Information:

Coconut oil has traditionally been used in ointments, forming a readily absorbable base. It has been used mainly in preparations intended for application to the scalp, where it could be applied as a solid but would liquefy when applied to the skin. It is known for its moisturizing properties. Penetrates deep into the hair shaft, providing nutrition and strength to the hair roots.

benefits: 

- Coconut oil is a great solution for conditioning and damage repair of your hair. It is loaded with lauric acid, which can penetrate deep into the hair shaft and provide essential nourishment and strength to the hair roots.

-By preventing protein loss, coconut oil helps to maintain healthy, lustrous hair, preventing it from looking frizzy, broken, and dry.

-Coconut oil has the unique ability to reduce the amount of water absorbed into your hair and minimize everyday hair damage.

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/coconut-oil-and-hair

- Coconut oil can help control dandruff by reducing scalp flaking, managing a dry and itchy scalp, and promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria.

https://www.verywellhealth.com/coconut-oil-for-your-hair-4171883

 

Coconut oil is readily saponified by strong alkalis even in the cold, and, as the soap produced is not readily precipitated by sodium chloride, it has been used to make "marine" soap. 

Coconut oil may be used to formulate a range of other preparations, including emulsions and nanoemulsions, intranasal solutions, rectal capsules, and suppositories.
https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

 

It is used to make Soap, edible fats, chocolate, candies, candles, ointment bases, hairdressing, massage, margarine, hydrogenated shortenings, soaps, cosmetics, emulsions, and many other uses.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

 

Safety profile:


Skin irritation: The researchers evaluated a bar soap that contained 13% coconut oil for skin irritation. They recorded minimal skin reactions and concluded that the material was not hazardous for everyday use.

It's worth noting that coconut oil may be absorbed through the skin and cause irritation when in contact with the eyes.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm(CTFA 1978h)

Skin sensitization: A butter containing 2.5% coconut oil was evaluated. No erythematous reactions were observed. (CTFA 1979e)

https://cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/115_buff3e_suppl.pdf

Using coconut oil as a sunscreen lotion does not afford any protection against ultraviolet light. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient for significant UV protection.

https://coconuts.pro/blog/does-coconut-oil-have-spf/#:~:text=Studies%20show%20that%20coconut%20oil%20has%20an%20SPF,not%20enough%20scientific%20research%20to%20support%20this%20claim.

 

Therapeutic Uses:


Coconut oil was evaluated for its therapeutic potential in several studies. No difference was observed between the Coconut Oil-treated and control sites in patients with psoriasis. Coconut Oil was found to be a natural remedy for controlling head louse infestations in a clinical trial in Israeli schoolchildren.

https://cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/115_buff3e_suppl.pdf


Coconut oil has been reported to have antifungal activity against Candida species.

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/302809#Coconut-oil-research

Virgin coconut oil has been found to have better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached, and deodorized coconut oil.

http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/13187/1/Antioxidant%20capacity%20and%20phenolic%20acids%20of%20virgin%20coconut%20oil.pdf


Natural Sources:

Expressed oil from kernels of Cocos nucifera L, Palmae

 
Environmental Biodegradation:
Resists oxidative rancidity but is susceptible to molds and other microorganisms.

Color/Form: Coconut oil (hydrogenated) is a white, semisolid, lard-like fat. It appears as a viscous, white to light yellow-tan liquid.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm


Odor: fresh, fruity, nutty scent with a faint coconut aroma and taste.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm


Chemical properties

Melting Point: 21-25 deg C
https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm


Physical Properties: Combustible at high temperatures and may spontaneously heat and ignite if stored under hot (above 258C) and wet conditions.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

Saponification value: 250-264, iodine value: 8-12, and acid value not exceeding 6

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities: Avoid mixing coconut oil with strong oxidizing agents. When coconut oil comes into contact with acids, it releases heat. This heat is also produced when coconut oil interacts with caustic (or highly alkaline) solutions. If coconut oil is mixed with strong oxidizing acids, it can cause an intense reaction that produces enough heat to potentially set the reaction products on fire.

Preventive Measures:

Coconut oil should be kept away from heat and sources of ignition.

Stability/Shelf Life: On exposure to air, the oil readily oxidizes and becomes rancid, acquiring an unpleasant odor and strong acid taste.

https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

 

Storage Conditions: Store in a tight, well-filled container, protected from light at a temperature not exceeding 25 degrees C. Store in a cool place. Keep the container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.
https://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8497952.htm

Methods of Manufacturing: Hydraulic press or expeller extraction from coconut meat followed by alkali-refining, bleaching, and deodorizing.
[Lewis, R.J. Sr.; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 15th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 2007., p. 318] **PEER REVIEWED** 

Expressed oil from kernels of Cocos nucifera L., Palmae. Constituents: Trimyristin, trilaurin, tripalmitin, tristearin, and other glycerides.
[O'Neil, M.J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 2006., p. 413] **PEER REVIEWED** 

The hard shell /of the coconut/, covered by a fibrous husk, encloses the white endosperm tissue 1 - 2 cm thick, the copra. To obtain a light, flavor-stable coconut oil, fresh copra with a water content of 60 - 70% is dried in the sun or hot air. This treatment prevents bacterial decomposition and lipolysis of the fat. Dry copra contains 60 - 67% oil. The dried copra is processed in an oil mill in two steps. About two-thirds of the oil is first obtained by expelling broken and rolled copra in continuous screw presses. The residual fat content of the expeller cake can be reduced to about 5% by high-pressure expelling and to 2 - 4% by extracting the expeller cake with hexane.

To obtain an edible oil of good quality, the crude coconut oil must be neutralized, bleached, and deodorized. ... The crude oil contains about 5% free fatty acids but can be lye-neutralized without significant loss of neutral oil. The neutralized, washed, and dried oil contains only small amounts of pigments, phosphatides, and other constituents. It is decolorized with 1 - 2% bleaching earth and 0.1 - 0.4% activated charcoal. Activated charcoal removes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons deposited on the copra by drying with flue gases.

Crude coconut oil with a relatively high content of free fatty acids can be advantageously neutralized and deodorized by distillation after pretreatment with phosphoric acid and bleaching earth-activated charcoal.
[Thomas A; Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 7th ed. (2008). NY, NY: John Wiley & Sons; Fats and Fatty Oils. Online Posting Date: June 15, 2000] **PEER REVIEWED** 


General Manufacturing Information:


Highly digestible; resists oxidative rancidity but is susceptible to that induced by molds and other microorganisms. Nondrying.
[Lewis, R.J. Sr.; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 15th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 2007., p. 318] **PEER REVIEWED** 

Chief Constituents: Glycerides of lauric acid, as well as of capric, myristic, palmitic & oleic acids
[Lewis, R.J. Sr.; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 15th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 2007., p. 318] **PEER REVIEWED**